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Modified Frequency Modulation, commonly MFM, is a run-length limited (RLL) coding scheme used to encode the actual data-bits on most floppy disks. It was first introduced in disk drives in 1970 with the IBM 3330 hard disk drive and then in floppy disk drives beginning with the "double density" IBM 53FD in 1976. MFM is a modification to the original digital FM (digital frequency modulation also known as delay coding) scheme for encoding data on single-density floppy disks and some early hard disk drives.
Due to the minimum spacing between flux transitions that is a property of the disk, head and channel design, MFM, which guarantees at most one flux transition per data bit, can be written at higher density than FM, which can require two transitions per data bit. It is used with a data rate of 250–500 kbit/s (500–1000 kbit/s encoded) on industry standard 5¼-inch and 3½-inch ordinary and high density diskettes. MFM was also used in early hard disk designs, before the advent of more efficient types of run-length limited codes. Except for the steadily disappearing 360 KiB/1.2 MiB (5.25-inch) and 720~880 KiB/1.4~1.6 MiB (3.5-inch) floppy disk formats, MFM encoding is obsolete in magnetic recording.

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